Exosome involvement has been reported in a vast array of disorders and inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune diseases.
Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles (30-100 nm) that are secreted by different types of cells and they have been well documented to resemble saucers or flattened spheres under the electron microscope.
Exosomes and Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is a disorder when the immune system produces antibodies that attach to the linings of joints. Immune system cells then attack the joints, causing inflammation, swelling, and pain.
If untreated, rheumatoid arthritis gradually causes permanent joint damage. Treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include various oral or injectable medications that reduce immune system overactivity.
Recently, evidence indicates that exosomes play important roles in immune modulation and are associated with the immune pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren’s syndrome (SS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Cell-derived exosomes are identified as carriers of lipids, proteins, and genetic materials that participate in cell-cell signal communication, biological process, and cell signaling. Also, their involvement has been reported in a vast array of disorders and inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune diseases.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common cause of the joint disorder, is an inflammation-based disease in which the precise understanding of its pathogenesis needs to be further investigated. Also, there is only a palliative care approach for the alleviation of RA symptoms.
More Autoimmune Disorders to Treat
The systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). People with lupus develop autoimmune antibodies that can attach to tissues throughout the body. The joints, lungs, blood cells, nerves, and kidneys are commonly affected by lupus. Treatment often requires daily oral prednisone, a steroid that reduces immune system function.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The immune system attacks the lining of the intestines, causing episodes of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, urgent bowel movements, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two major forms of IBD. Oral and injected immune-suppressing medicines treat IBD.
Multiple sclerosis (MS). The immune system attacks nerve cells, causing symptoms that can include pain, blindness, weakness, poor coordination, and muscle spasms. Various medicines that suppress the immune system are used to treat multiple sclerosis.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Immune system antibodies attack and destroy insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. At diagnosis, people with type 1 diabetes require insulin injections to survive.
Guillain-Barre syndrome. The immune system attacks the nerves controlling muscles in the legs and sometimes the arms and upper body. Weakness results, which can sometimes be severe. Filtering the blood with a procedure called plasmapheresis is the main treatment for Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Similar to Guillain-Barre, the immune system also attacks the nerves in CIDP, but symptoms last much longer. About 30% of patients can become confined to a wheelchair if not diagnosed and treated early. Treatment for CIDP and GBS are essentially the same.
Psoriasis. In psoriasis, immune system blood cells called T-cells are collected in the skin. The immune system activity stimulates skin cells to reproduce rapidly, producing silvery, scaly plaques on the skin.
Graves’ disease. The immune system produces antibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland to release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood (hyperthyroidism). Symptoms of Graves’ disease can include bulging eyes as well as weight loss, nervousness, irritability, rapid heart rate, weakness, and brittle hair. Destruction or removal of the thyroid gland, using medicines or surgery, is usually required to treat Graves’ disease.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Antibodies produced by the immune system attack the thyroid gland, slowly destroying the cells that produce thyroid hormone. Low levels of thyroid hormone develop (hypothyroidism), usually over months to years. Symptoms include fatigue, constipation, weight gain, depression, dry skin, and sensitivity to cold. Taking a daily oral synthetic thyroid hormone pill restores normal body functions.
Myasthenia gravis. Antibodies bind to nerves and make them unable to stimulate muscles properly. Weakness that gets worse with activity is the main symptom of myasthenia gravis. Mestinon (pyridostigmine) is the main medicine used to treat myasthenia gravis.
Vasculitis. The immune system attacks and damages blood vessels in this group of autoimmune diseases. Vasculitis can affect any organ, so symptoms vary widely and can occur almost anywhere in the body.
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). A chronic autoimmune disorder of the exocrine glands mediated by lymphocytic infiltrates damaging the body tissues and affecting the life quality of patients.
Exosomes in the Treatment of Sjögren’s Syndrome
Although traditional methods of diagnosis and treatment for SS are effective, in the time of personalized medicine, new biomarkers, and novel approaches are required for the detection and treatment of SS. Exosomes represent an emerging field in the discovery of biomarkers and the management of SS.
Exosomes, a subtype of extracellular vesicles, are secreted by various cell types and can be found in most bodily fluids. Exosomes are packed with cytokines and other proteins, bioactive lipids, and nucleic acids (mRNA, circular RNA, non-coding RNA, tRNA, microRNA, genomic DNA, and ssDNA), and transport such cargo between cells.
Evidence has indicated that exosomes may play roles in processes such as the modulation of the immune response and activation of inflammation. Moreover, due to features such as stability, low immunogenicity and toxicity, the long half-life, and the capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, exosomes have also emerged as therapeutic tools for SS.
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